ADVANCED OPERATION AND OPERATOR TIPS - CONTINUED
CONSTRUCTION OF BERMS
Excess material (i.e., not required at fill) from a construction site must be stockpiled in the form of a berm or hauled
Berms are constructed with the scraper. However, due to the steep side slopes of the berm, a track-type tractor does
the finish work.
Construct berm as follows:
Start from the outside and work inward.
Construct berm with lifts of 4-6 in. (10-15 cm).
Establish length of berm with first layer of material.
Work from the outside in, to fill base. Intermediate passes should be offset one half machine widths, to be filled
in by follow-on machines.
Deposit 3-4 layers, at which time the width of berm must be reduced by a machine width.
CONSTRUCTION OF WATER CONTROL DITCHES
Construction of water control ditches is essential to maintaining horizontal surfaces, roads, runways, landing zones,
Using earthmoving equipment other than a scraper to construct a water control ditch creates windrows that reduce/
preclude water flow and must be feathered out. Using a scraper eliminates this problem.
Scraper-made ditches are usually broader and shallower than ditches made by other types of equipment.
Construct a water control ditch with a series of three passes, as follows:
First series of passes remove material to the required depth to form the bottom of the ditch.
The second and third series of passes form each side of the ditch. The cutting edge is lowered only to remove
material from the intended ditch. The outboard wheel of the machine must remain on undisturbed soil.
The depth and width of the ditch may be increased, limited only by the side slope capability of the machine. A
steeper side slope must be established and maintained by track-type tractors or motor graders.
Ponds are excavated using similar techniques as water control ditches, except that the length of the excavation is
fixed and it is wider and deeper.
The scraper functions mainly to remove material from the bottom of the pond.
Track-type tractors and motor graders are typically required to provide access into and out of excavation. These
machines also dress the edge of the excavation and maintain side slopes in a safe operating condition. They create
windrows of excess material at bottom of pond or outside the circumference, to be picked up and moved by the
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